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Europe Aflame
Player Briefing

Updated 19-06-2001

Europe Aflame - The Second World War for TOAW-WotY (PBEM only)

There is a newer version at http://www.ulver.dk/files/briefing.rtf

By Ulver Nielsen (ulver@ulver.dk) and Mark Stevens, with fulsome acknowledgements to Trey Marshall

This is the extended version of the Player Briefing.  If you are bothering to read this, it is assumed you are the type of player who actually likes reading a detailed overview of events, suggestions for play, designers' notes and the reasons underlying various game features.  Accordingly, this briefing will go into some depth, explaining in particular exactly how Theatre Events are triggered and what their effects are.  It will assist you if you are familiar with the TOAW Editor and database. We appreciate that many players do not enjoy knowing the specifics of these beforehand. If you are one of the latter, you are definitely advised not to read this version of the briefing (but do steady your nerves for some possible shocks during the first game). For ease of reference, all information needed to play will be presented here. If you have read the basic briefing there will be a certain amount of repetition.  Please bear with us.  We have decided this is preferable to having the reader constantly being required to refer back to the shorter document If you do like to know the exact effects of every event (supply bonuses penalties, shipping changes etc., we've added a one letter code ('a','b', and so on) to the News Strings, which correspond to the Events detailed below.  By switching from the game to this Briefing you can identify which News Strings have an effect on the game, and what these will be.

 The scenario begins several months before the historical outbreak of World War II.  German forces have mobilized and are massing on the Polish border.  In accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Russians are eyeing the Finnish border, the Baltic States, Eastern Poland and the Rumanian province of Besserabia.  However, from this point on, the German Player is not forced to follow the historical schedule, but is free to change the plan for the conquest of Europe. Using Theatre Options, the players can choose which countries to declare war on.  However, neutral countries will also be guided by a programmed entry schedule, based on the dynamics of the game and a certain random element.  Your actions and the actions of your opponent will affect the turns of entry.  These are detailed below.The basic land unit of this game is the corps; however, it may sometimes be advantageous to divide the corps into several divisions (e.g. to block ZOCs or to cover very open territory). We have made a number of political assumptions when designing the game: one of the most contentious is that Stalin's Russia was an aggressive, expansionary state, with ambitions (if the opportunities  arose) well beyond the limited seizures of land achieved pre-'Barbarossa'. Unlike in many similar games, don't expect the Soviet Union to content itself with parts of Finland, the Baltic States, East Poland and Bessarabia, then sit quietly waiting to be attacked by Germany and its allies at their leisure, irrespective of the overall situation. Apart from the option to complete the conquest of Finland while still allied to Germany, the USSRit may choose to enter the war if the Germans land in the United Kingdom, approach the Turkish capital, Ankara, or - at the Allied Player's choice -sometime between turns 80 - 120, if the Axis has not attacked by then. Pre-'Barbarossa' the Soviet forces were deployed - and deploying - in forward positions (which partly accounts for the early disasters), and contingency plans existed to attack Germany, Hungary and Rumania. The idea that Stalin completely ignored his own General Staff's and Allied warnings of an impending Axis attack because he  somehow 'trusted' Hitler are no longer tenable: Russia itself was  manoeuvering into an offensive position: in simple terms, Stalin was  'beaten to the draw' in June 1941. He needn't necessarily be with you in command.

We have been unable to solve the famous TOAW 'fleet reconstitution bug' which leads to destroyed fleets reappearing in some very odd locations - moral: always withdraw your naval units to a friendly, supplied port if they start looking weak The relationship between the designers has been a fruitful one because of our different approach. Ulver is very much a 'what-if' type and doesn't like historical constraints. He wants to be able to dispatch his forces wherever he damn well pleases, and suggested introducing a 'No Purge' option to resurrect Marshal Tuchachevsky, who'd been dead for two years before the scanario begins.  Left to him, there might well be 'Hitler loses elections', 'Churchill dies from alcohol poisoning' or 'Franco lost the Civil War' Events. Basically, he is into Alternative History with a vengeance, whether  it seems to make sense or not.  Mark, on the other hand, is the  historical wargamer type.  He likes a game where you learn something about military history and strategy.  Hence his constant appeals  'But that never happened historically.' whenever Ulver suggested introducing German atomic bombs, 'Albert Speer's Armoured Corps', Arab Peasant Rebels with motorized units, &etc. The net result is that Ulver usually came up with 10 outrageous ideas a day, while Mark filtered out things that obviously wouldn't work, and tried to suggest plausible, 'what-if', options that might - conceivably - have happened.

We would have liked to introduce these type of pre-War Events, to produce, for example, a Republican Spain to alter the balance of power in the Mediterranean, but the game engine doesn't allow us add that degree of flexibility and still retain the essentials of WW II in Europe. To achieve the results we wanted, and to introduce a greater degree of flexibility, we have deviated somewhat from Trey's detailed and extensively researched order of battle.  Game design, and the limitations of the TOAW database, often forced us to choose between playability and absolute historical accuracy, and faced with those choices we have generally chosen playability.  The responsibility for some of the more unusual results rests solely with Ulver.  Please feel free to address complaints to him.If you look closely at the actual composition of the forces, you may wonder, for example, what late war French units are doing with T-34s.  Our problem is that no one knows what a French produced 1944 tank would have looked like.  Obviously the database only contains equipment that actually existed, so we used Soviet equipment to simulate what France might have produced had she not collapsed in 1940 (contrary to popular belief, some French tanks in 1940 were  among the best in the world).  In game terms this dovetails nicely with the 'alternative history' approach: realistically, the only way  the Axis Player is likely to fail to conquer France early in the game is if he decides to go directly for the Soviet Union.  Using  Soviet equipment enables France to make use of the later war  replacements that are already built into the game.  In this  instance, should both France and the Soviet Union remain in play throughout the entire game they will have to share each other's tank replacements: but if Germany finds herself at war with both France and the Soviet Union for any length of time it will need all the help it can get!

There are a number of instances where we have applied this principle to achieve realistic results with very 'unhistorical' equipment. Perhaps the most striking example is our use of late war heavy tanks to give the massive forts of the Maginot Line what we consider to be  realistic defensive strengths.  There is simply no actual equipment in the database that adequately represents these massive steel and  concrete fortifications, with their pre-ranged, interlocking fields of fire and wide minefields.  Some units are necessary to accommodate examples of what 'might have  been'.  For example, we have assumed that an early Soviet attack on Germany in 1940 would have resulted in hasty fortification of the eastern border, mobilisation of the Volksturm and an earlier shift toward full war production, which did not occur until 1943.  In this eventuality such a Soviet attack on Germany will trigger additional German reinforcements, both immediately and over time, that would otherwise not appear in the game.

Victory Points - Or, 'Is Narva as important as Benghazi?'

The allocation of Victory Points has been particularly difficult in a scenario of this complexity. What should constitute an Axis  'victory': clinging onto Berlin for one month later than historically; control of Western and Central Europe by 1945; or only the final surrender of both Great Britain and the USSR? Players are strongly recommended to mutually agree their own criteria before starting to play. Having helped to design such a fluid and dynamicscenario, we don't want to put players into a Victory Point straitjacke based on our own conceptions. More as an aid to this process than as a definitive answer, we've adopted the following policy. The number of Victory Points starts off as equal for the Axis and pro-Axis, and Allied and pro-Allied, countries in 1939 - including countries like Spain, which never entered the War. As the game develops, players can see how the  balance is changing relative to that initial position, and form their own judgements accordingly. (A few countries, like Turkey, can join either side, depending on the overall strategic situation.) The Points themselves are potentially contentious, representing as  they must a mixture of political, economic, strategic and historical values. For example, Italy's possessions in North Africa and the Middle East, and the Horn of Africa, were largely worthless from an economic point of view: but the maintenance of that fragile 'empire' was of crucial political importance in sustaining its will to continue the fight. Many of the effects that would be represented by Victory Points in similar boardgames are built into the Events List: the fall of various industrial and strategic centers (e.g. the oilfields at Ploesti, the industrial centre of Stalingrad) will affect the level of supply, while the capture of a country's capital will usually remove all of its military units from the game. British loss of Gibraltar will allow the powerful Italian fleet to enter  the Atlantic, Channel and North Sea (if Italy is active), while the fall of various major cities will prevent the arrival of their scheduled reinforcements.

In general, we've adopted the following policy for allocating points:

Major Powers' capitals: 20 (other than Berlin)

Medium Powers' capitals: 10

Minor Powers' capitals: 5

'Strategic' objectives (e.g. the Suez Canal, Leningrad, Malta): 10

Other Industrial/Population centres: 5

Other Objectives (usually along pre-War border areas, or those on an important route, like the Road to Moscow): 1

In a game of this size, haggling over whether Köln (Cologne) should  be a '4', while Kiev should only be a '3', seems pretty pointless. However, we would emphasize again that it is up to the individual players to decide - preferably in advance - what they consider to be realistic aims and objectives.  Of course, the advantage of not doing so is to allow both sides to claim victory!  (That's the way we usually do things.)

Since the TOAW game engine, despite its general excellence and flexibility, was never designed to simulate warfare on a strategic  level, we really are pushing its boundaries with this scenario.  One regrettable consequence is that we have been forced to introduce a number of House Rules to cover constraints that simply couldn't be build into the game engine.

House Rules (Player enforced)

Players may not attack, or move their units into, other countries until they are formally at war, or allied.  (Only Germany and the Soviet Union start the scenario as active participants.)  The News  Briefing is very comprehensive and specifies when countries enter the game.  Play as if an exclusion zone covers non-participating countries until they join either side.  If you want to invade a country you must first pick the appropriate Theatre Option to declare war  (or possibly bring it in as an ally).  Please note that  you must wait until the start of the turn after you pick the Option before actually entering the country.  THIS IS ABSOLUTELY CRITICAL. If no option exists you may not invade that country (at least yet). Keep a very close eye on the News Briefing and the Theatre Options, as these will change dramatically according to the dynamics of the game.  Once a country enters the game it is permanently involved.

Besserabia, the Baltic States, Iraq and Persia are exempt from this  rule and may entered by either side physically able to do so.

The Soviets can only enter Eastern Poland after Germany is at war with Poland or Poland has entered the war on the Axis side, 

This rule is essential because inactive countries' units are unable to move until the turn after a declaration of war (or alliance).  As the Axis moves first in a turn, this still allows Germany its historical preference for attacking a neutral country before the  latter can deploy its forces. 

No Axis units may enter the US or Canada.

No units may be disbanded.

Partisans (Guerilla and Irregular Infantry units) may not voluntarily leave their home country, neither may the British 'Home Guard' units triggered by an Axis invasion.

In order to avoid the completely unhistorical use of both sides' minor allies - i.e. the Portugese storming bravely ashore at Archangel - we suggest that they be restricted to their actual, or at least potential, areas of operation, as well as their home countries (this in addition to the limitations on partisans and guerillas already mentioned):

'The Balkans' - Yugoslavia, Albania, Rumania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Greece

'North Africa & the Middle East' - Morocco through to the northern  borders of Syria, Iraq and Iran

'Scandinavia' - Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark

'Western Europe' - the United Kingdom, Eire, France, Spain, Holland,  Belgium, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and the Mediterranean Islands


Portuguese, Dutch and Belgian units are restricted to Western Europe

Norwegian units are restricted to Scandinavia

Polish (Allied and Axis) units are restricted to the USSR, the Baltic States, the Balkans and Germany east of Berlin - the Free Poles who reform after the fall of Poland are regarded as British units

Turkish units are restricted to the Balkans, North Africa & the Middle East

Greek units are restricted to the Balkans

Yugoslavian units are restricted to the Balkans and Italy

Swiss units are restricted to Western Europe

Rumanian and Hungarian units are restricted to the USSR, the Balkans and Turkey

Croats and Bulgarians are restricted to the Balkans and European Turkey up to and including Istanbul

Swedish and Finnish units are restricted to Scandinavia and the USSR north of and including Moscow

Spanish units are restricted to Western Europe and North Africa & the Middle East (except for the 'Blue Division' which is unrestricted)

Iraqi, Iranian and Arab Revolt units are restricted to North Africa & the Middle East

Irish units are restricted to Western Europe

Vichy French units are restricted to Western Europe and North Africa & the Middle East

US, French, Italian, German, British and Soviet troops are unrestricted.

The US Entry Variable

US entry into the war is guided by the US Entry Variable.  The two critical thresholds are an entry variable of 50 that allows for Allied Theater Options to request US aid, and an entry variable of 100 that results in the US entering the war.  There are two ways  this variable can change.  (i) It automatically increases over time and (ii) it can be influenced by the actions of the players. The  timed events are as follows:

News string     Variable value/turn range

Timed Events:

Debate on War in US congress +10 /60
US debate on Europe   +10 /27
Increased interest in Europe by the US +10 /80-129
Pearl Habour bombed by Japan +15 /128
FDR pleads for support to Allies +10 /70-99
Incident in Atlantic: U-boat sinks US ship +10 /5-154
US interest in European war increases +30 /174
US/British sign formal alliance  +10 /128-68
FDR asks Congress to declare war against Germany +10 /138-78
(On turn 200 - mid 1943 - the US will automatically enter, if it has not already done so

The following player actions will increase the US entry variable:

Axis chose Theatre Option 'Battle of Britain'  +5
Axis chose Theatre Option to attack France +15
Fall of France +25
Entry of Italy +15
Axis chose Theatre Option to attack Denmark/Norway  +5
Axis chose Theatre Option to attack Low Countries  +10
Axis chose Theater Option to attack Yugoslavia  +5
Axis chose Theatre Option to enter Spain  +15
Axis troops land in England (hex 60,37 radius: 11 hexes) +10
Axis chose Theater Option to attack Switzerland  +10
Axis captures Leningrad  +25
Axis captures Moscow  +25
Axis captures London  +35
Axis captures Suez  +10
Axis chose Theatre Option: 'Additional German pre-war builds'  +30
Axis chose Theatre Option: 'Axis aircraft carriers'  +5

The following player actions will decrease the US entry variable:

USSR occupies Baltic States (hex 112,62)  -5
Allies chose Theatre Option to attack Finland  -10
Allies chose Theatre Option to attack Belgium  -20
The Soviet Union enters the war   -20

In addition the Allied Player may pick the following US Entry Options when the variable reaches 50:

Lend-Lease destroyers (-15) This option gives the UK a naval unit containing 50 destroyers. In addition Allied supply is increased by 4

Lend-Lease aircraft (-15) This option dumps about 2000 planes into the Allied replacement pool. There are slots for these aircraft in the French/British orders of battle.

Lend-Lease AFVs (-15) This option immediately dumps about 800 tanks into the Allied replacement pool.  After 20-39 turns an additional 2000 tanks are dumped into the Allied replacement pool, and two divisions with a combined strength of about 600 tanks appear (one in the UK and one in Egypt).  There are slots for these tanks in the French/British orders of battle.

Once the US has entered the war these Theater Options disappear.  It  is a "use 'em or lose 'em" situation.

Some players have complained that the use of these variables often leads to the USA entering the war earlier than it did: this is usually because they've chosen the Axis Pre-War Build Options - if you do this make sure that you utilise the extra units to achieve some spectacular successes early on, so that you're in a better position to resist thE Americans.  Just using them to conquer France one month early is not a  'spectacular success'!


Supply is a crucial part of the scenario: much of the strategy of the game revolves around controlling these sources and in taking them from the other player.  They represent either industrial or population centres, major ports, choke points in the sea lanes, or actual or potential sites for full-scale sea invasions.

The following is a full list of supply sources:

Axis: 105,60 (Königsberg).
Axis: 87,59 (Berlin).
Axis: 75,54 (Munster).
Axis: 47,93 (Tunis).
Axis: 84,73 (Vienna).
Axis: 88,78 (Budapest).
Axis: 100,93 (Bucharest).
Axis: 90,96 (Sofia).
Axis: 102,109 (Istanbul)
Axis: 107,71 (Brest-Litovsk).
Axis: 51,147 (Mogadishu).
Axis: 64,73 (Milan).
Axis: 26,61 (Madrid).
Axis: 46,107 (Tripoli).
Axis: 64,124 (Benghazi).
Axis: 10,68 (Tangiers)
Axis: 60,53 (Paris).
Axis: 137,143 (Baghdad)
Axis: 97,44 (Goteborg).
Axis: 110,45 (Stockholm).
Axis: 122,47 (Helsinki).
Axis: 146,23 (Petsamo).
Axis: 112,138 (Damascus)
Axis: 100,36 (Oslo)
Axis: 80,98 (Tirana).
Axis: 81,120 (Suda Bay). (CRETE)
Axis: 55,105 (MALTA).
Axis: 12,68 (GIBRALTAR).
Axis: 75,130 (Tobruk)
Axis: 62,44 (London).
Axis: 63,47 (Dover).
Axis: 58,43 (Southampton).
Axis: 55,29 (Dublin).
Axis: 51,40 (Plymouth).
Axis: 51,88 (Cagliari).
Axis: 63,87 (Rome).

Allies: 72,98 (Taranto).
Allies: 0,27. (North America)
Allies: 62,39 (Birmingham).
Allies: 62,44 (London).
Allies: 54,47 (Cherbourg).
Allies: 12,54 (Lisbon).
Allies: 12,68 (GIBRALTAR).
Allies: 1,69 (Casablanca).
Allies: 31,81 (Algiers)
Allies: 47,93 (Tunis).
Allies: 63,100 (Messina).
Allies: 68,66 (Zurich).
Allies: 91,139 (Alexandria).
Allies: 93,144 (Cairo)
Allies: 55,49 (Normandy - historical site for D-day)
Allies: 72,49 (Amsterdam).
Allies: 111,116 (Ankara).
Allies: 63,49 (Calais).
Allies: 61,75 (Genoa)
Allies: 84,112 (Athens).
Allies: 87,88 (Belgrade).
Allies: 102,67 (Warsaw).
Allies: 131,53 (Leningrad).
Allies: 140,67 (Moscow).
Allies: 149,91 (Stalingrad).
Allies: 147,113 (Grozny).
Allies: 100,36 (Oslo).
Allies: 63,89 (Anzio).
Allies: 161,76 (Omsk)).
Allies: 148,26 (Murmansk).
Allies: 55,105 (MALTA)
Allies: 16,146 (Cape Town).
Allies: 51,72 (Marseille).
Allies: 141,148 (Basra - Indian Supply)
Allies: 68,51 (Antwerp).
Allies: 60,53 (Paris).

There is a 'road' - sea moves only! - to provide Allied supply from Cape Town or Basra to the Horn of Africa, and a similar 'road'  linking Belfast to the British mainland.     

The capture or loss of key supply sources will cause significant  shifts in supply or dump additional equipment in the replacement pool. (By disbanding units not on the map). Unless explicitly stated, recapturing the hex does not reverse the supply shift. This  is a limitation of the game engine


Shown as: hex number (location) (Supply Points) which side penalised/benefits (-) Letter corresponding to News String

128,20(Narvik) (5) Axis loss (a) About 30 turns after the United Kingdom goes to war with Germany the Royal Navy will (automatically)cut iron ore shipments from Norway.  This results in a supply loss to the Axis of 5.  To reverse the supply loss, the Axis Player needs to capture Narvik (hex 128, 20).  The event list supports Narvik shifting owners an unlimited number of times, with the consequent supply shifts.

84,73 (Vienna) (3) Axis loss (b)

147,113 (Grozny) (c) No supply effect. Capturing the hex will add significant equipment  to the Axis replacement pool, representing the effect of increased  oil supplies.

134,106 (Maikop) (d) No supply effect. Capturing the hex will add significant equipment to the Axis replacement pool, representing the effect of increased oil supplies.

2,68 (GIBRALTAR) (3+3) (e) Multiple effects.  Capturing will both increase Axis, and reduce Allied, supply.  In addition, Axis Sea Transport capability will be  increased to 6,000, and the scheduled loss of capability due to US entry will be cancelled.  Recapturing the hex will reduce Axis Sea Transport to 2,000

83,122 (Herakleion) (1) (Crete) (Axis gain) (f)

63,87 (Rome) (3) Axis loss (g) The supply penalty for the Axis is in addition to the surrender of Italy.

84,81 (Hungarian Oil Refinery) (2) Axis loss (h)

149,91 (Stalingrad) (4) Allied loss (i)

140,67 (Moscow) (10) (Allied loss) (j) Multiple effects.  In addition to the supply loss, replacements will  be reduced by a multiple of  0.8. Recapturing the hex will increase Allied supply by 7 and increase replacements by a multiple of 1.15.

148,26 (Murmansk)(4) Allied loss (k)

96, 144 (Suez Canal) (4) Allied loss (l)

62,39 (Birmingham)(5) Allied loss (m) Loss of this hex also leads to the surrender of the United Kingdom, after a 1-4 turn delay.

60,53 (Paris)(3) Allied loss (n)

This also leads to the surrender of France and the creation of Vichy.  After a delay, this will also dump captured French equipment into the Axis replacement pool.

157,124 (Baku)(4+4)(Allied loss + Axis gain) (o) Axis capture of this hex will also result in additional replacements being dumped into the replacement pool, extra reinforcements and cause Turkey to enter the war on the side of the Axis.  Recapturing the hex will reverse the supply shifts (only!).  Baku was the centre of the Soviet oil industry.  We're assuming that the Turkish militarywould have decided to join the winning side at this point.  

If the Axis capture London Allied replacments will be reduced by 20% for 100 turns

In addition, the following events will affect supply

US enters war (4) ; Allied gain (p)
US convoys begin delivering supplies to the UK (5) (q) - Allied gain between 48-59 turns after US entry in the war
Allies have successfully countered the U-boat Threat (5) (r) - Allied gain between 210-233 turns after the US enters the war
Should the Soviet Union be conquered, Allied supply will be increased by 25 to reflect more material becoming available to US/British/French forces (i.e. no more equipment or material need be shipped to the Soviet Union via the Murmansk Convoys or Persia.)

Offensive Theater Options. Due to the limitations of the game engine, these bonuses applyacross the entire Theatre.  Generally, it makes sense to use them for their intended purpose.

Operation Marita (Balkans) (s) - Axis +10 bonus for 4 turns.
Available following declaration of war with Yugoslavia. Disappears upon conquest of Yugoslavia

Overlord (D-day) (t) - Allied supplies increased by 15.  After 12 turns, Allied supply reduced by 10 resulting in a permanent bonus of 5. Shipping increased to 24,000 for 3 turns, than reduced to 10,000, resulting in a permanent bonus of 2,000. Air Transport increased to 9,500 for 3 turns, then reduced to 5,000. Available 72 turns after the US enters the war

Operation Barbarossa (u) - Axis supply bonus 20 for 8 turns. Allied air shock penalty of 50 for 4 turns. Allied land shock penalty of 80 for 10 turns. Available when the Soviet Union enters the war

Battle of Britain (v) If this air battle is won (50% chance) the Axis receive a sealift of 8,500 between 6-9 turns after the beginning of the battle.  This bonus lasts for two turns, after which it falls to 5,000 resulting in a  net bonus of 1,000. Germany also receives bonus reinforcements.  (Specialist air and sea assault troops.)The Option becomes available after the surrender of France, and disappears 72 turns after the US enters the war

Case Yellow  (Blitz France) Option (w) Gives the Axis three turns of 180-shock bonus.  After those three turns the Axis suffer a shock penalty of 80 for two turns (representing the need for resupply and repairs).  Shortly thereafter, assuming France has not yet been conquered, an option to resume the offensive appears (x).  Choosing that option will give theAxis a shock bonus of 130 for ten turns.Available when France enters the war.Disappears with the surrender of France.

Declare War on the Low Countries (y) (can, in fact probably should, be  used in conjunction with Case Yellow)The Allies automatically suffer a two turn penalty of shock 80, starting after the turn the Axis chooses the 'Declare War on the Low Countries' Theater Option.  Ten turns after that, the French receive a number of high proficiency units representing the Allies attempting to reorganize their forces to counter the Blitzkrieg. These units are essentially empty shells, but they have a very high priority to receive replacements.

1-5 turns after the Axis penetrate to within two hexes of Paris;  'De Gaulle' organizes a French Armoured Division in the Free French colors (z).  If France surrenders beforehand the Event is cancelled, however if De Gaulle arrives this division won't surrender, but will  fight on as the nucleus of the Free French Army.  (This is more to  add flavor than being completely historical, but that is the way it would have happened in the Hollywood version where Bogart played De Gaulle!)

The Battle of France is therefore typically a two-stage affair. Given that Germany receives quite a few reinforcements that will be available for a 1940 (but not a 1939) attack, it is very chancey to  attack before the winter of 1939-40 stops all combat.  Should the  Axis fail to knock out France in the first phase, it risks winter forcing a lengthy pause, giving the French time to reorganize and redeploy her army, resulting in a far stronger French defense in the  spring of 1940.  The 'low risk' approach is therefore the historical one, waiting until the spring of 1940 to attack France, using the  Declare War on the Low Countries & Case Yellow Options in combination.

Sea/Air lift changes (other than specified above)

Axis Sea Transport starts at 4,000

Axis Sea Transport rises to 5,000 after a successful Battle ofBritain Option

Axis Sea Transport rises to 6,000 after the capture of Gibraltar

Axis Sea Transport falls to 2,000 between turns 140-163, unless Gibraltar is Axis controlled(Axis Sea Transport drops to 2,000 following the Allied recapture of Gibraltar)

Axis Air Transport starts at 3,000

Axis Air Transport falls to 2,000 on turn 140

Axis Air Transport falls to 1,000 between 48-55 turns after the US enters the war

Allied Sea Transport starts at 5,000

Allied Sea Transport rises to 8,000 between 24-41 turns after the US enters the warAllied Sea Transport falls to 10,500 after the completion of Overlord

Allied Air Transport starts at 500 Allied Air Transport rises to 1,500 between 48-55 turns after the US enter the war Allied Air transport rises to 3,000 between 108-115 turns after the US enters the war Allied Air Transport goes to 5,000 after the Overlord Option

Other Shock events

Winter effect:

Cease-Fire Event stops all combat in the winter of 1939-40 (the 'Sitzkrieg')
Begin between turns 24-26
Ends between turns 35-37

Winter 40-41 Effect: Axis shock penalty 80
Begin between turns 75-79
Ends between turns 86-90

Winter 41-42 Effects: Axis shock penalty 80
Begins between turns 128-132
Ends between turns 135-138

Winter 42-43 Effects: Allied shock bonus 120
Begins between turns 178-181
Ends between turns 192-193

Initial Axis Blitzkrieg bonus - representing the high state of training and preparation, and the new tactical doctrines employed by the Germans in the early part of the war
Axis shock bonus 115
Begins turn 1
Ends turn 172
Axis air shock bonus 120
Begins turn 1
Ends between 48-55 turns after the US enters the war


The United Kingdom surrenders following the loss of Birmingham

The Soviet Union surrenders with the loss of both Moscow and Stalingrad

Vichy collapses with an Allied capture of Paris.

A Pro-Axis Poland surrenders with the loss of Brest-Litovsk

In addition to the loss of Stockholm, Sweden will also make peace if the Allies knock Finland out of the war.

In addition to an automatic surrender with the fall of Rome there is 40% chance Italy will surrender with the Allied capture of Messina.

Italian forces in Ethiopia will surrender with the Allied capture of Addis Ababa.

Other countries surrender following the loss of their capital. In some cases there may be a short delay before surrender takes effect.

Entry of Neutrals

Theatre Option based entries:

The Axis has Theatre Options available from the start to declare war on Denmark/Norway; the Low Countries; France/UK; Poland; The Soviet Union; Yugoslavia and Switzerland. An option to attack Portugal appears if Spain joins the Axis.

Should Germany declare war on France/UK or the Low Countries, Poland will join the Allies.  (Exception: if France has extended the Maginot line to the sea, Poland will only join the Allies if directly attacked by Germany)A German attack on Belgium will result in the immediate entry of France and the United Kingdom, without the Allied Player having to declare a Theater Option.

Should Germany declare war on the Soviet Union the Western Allies may not react (we're assuming that they couldn't care less, but they can intervene when the Germans penetrate to within 17 hexes of hex 143,72 - Rayazan, to the south of Moscow).

If Germany declares war on anyone else, an Option appears for France  /UK to declare war on Germany. Note that this only applies if Germany chooses a Theatre Option to declare war on a neutral: it does not apply should that country go to war with Germany of its own accord.

Once Germany is at war with France, an Axis Option appears to bring Italy into the war.  Doing so before Axis units are within two hexes of Paris will cause Turkey and Greece to enter the war on the Allied side.

An Allied Theatre Option exists for the Soviet Union to declare war  on Finland from the start of the scenario (the 'Winter War').  This was actually limited to a border war, but the Allied (Soviet) Player is free to attempt to conquer Finland outright, even prior to the  outbreak of the Soviet-German war.  An exclusion zone has been  placed so as to deliberately make this difficult, but not  impossible.  If any Allied units advance to within 3 hexes of hex 123,46 prior to the Soviet Union going to war with Germany, Finland  receives additional reinforcements representing Western and Scandinavian assistance (this was proposed in 1940, and the troops were actually being assembled before being diverted to Norway). 

Once Germany is at war with the Soviet Union this exclusion zone disappears.

Once France/UK goes to war with Germany, Options for the Allies to declare war on Spain, Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands become available.

After the Fall of France a Theatre Option becomes available for Germany to activate Spain as a full ally at the expense of Vichy France (Franco demanded the French North African territories, but Hitler decided to stick with Petain).  Doing so will mean the collapse of Vichy France, and the considerable French colonial forces, including French naval and air units, will join the Allies.

Once the US enters the war the Allies may declare war on both Germany and Italy if not already at war.

Should France choose to extend the Maginot Line to the sea in the pre-war years, an Option becomes available for Germany to pressure Poland into joining a German attack on the Soviet Union.  This Option disappears when Germany goes to war with France/UK, or  - obviously - Poland.  This also affects the Allied diplomatic position in Central Europe - see below.

Other entries

Finland (Axis)
60% following a German war with the Soviet Union
Axis capture of Leningrad

Sweden (Axis)
Axis capture of Leningrad

Rumania (Axis)
France extends Maginot line to sea (the presumption being that such a move would signal its intention to adopt a purely defensive strategy, and completely undermine pre-war French diplomatic efforts to sponsor a 'Little Entente' in Central Europe).
Soviet Union goes to war with Germany
50 % following the Fall of France
50% German attack on Yugoslavia
50% if the Red Army occupies Besserabia (Hex 110,87 - Chisinau)

Hungary (Axis)
France extends Maginot Line (as above)
60%, with 1-8 turns delay, if the Soviet Union goes to war with Germany
1-4 turns after Yugoslavia conquered
 50% following the Fall of France

Bulgaria (Axis)
25% if Rumania enters
35% following the Fall of France
1-10 Turns after Yugoslavia conquered
80% if Greece joins the Allies
80% if Turkey joins the Allies

Ireland (Eire) (Axis)
Axis capture of London (Eire had fought a bitter guerilla war for independence with the UK immediately after WW I, and its constitution claimed the whole of Ireland as the national territory)

Iraq - (Axis - Theatre Option to raise a nationalist revolt - this occured in 1941, but was speedily put down
Becomes available if the Axis capture El-Alamein

Persia  (Axis)
Allied forces within 8 hexes of hex 150, 137 (road junction leading towards Tehran)

Turkey (Axis)
Axis captures Baku

Turkey (Allies)
Allied capture Sofia

Belgium (Allies)
25% chance if France goes to war with Germany. (Exception: cancelled if the Maginot Line has been extended)

Poland (Allies)
Germany declares war on France/UK or the Low Countries (Exception: cancelled if the Maginot Line has been extended)

Greece (Allies)
50% if Axis chooses Theatre Option to invade Yugoslavia
50% after a 1-5 turn delay if Bulgaria joins the Axis
Italy enters the war prior to the Axis being within two hexes of Paris

Yugoslavia (Allies)
50% if Germany and the Soviet Union go to war
Italy enters the war prior to the Axis being within two hexes of Paris         

Portugal (Allies)
85% if Spain enters on the Axis side
50% once the United States enters the war

Other Events

The 'Build Siegfried Line' Option deploys a series of strong fortifications along Germany's border with France and Belgium (effectively a German version of the Maginot Line).  It is only available before Germany goes to war with France/UK.  Choosing this Option removes the 'Case Yellow' offensive option, which will greatly handicap any subsequent attack on France.

The fall of Cairo triggers an Arab uprising, with some small Arab units joining the Axis in the Middle East.

Between 30-49 turns after the Axis goes to war with the Soviet Union, partisans (Guerilla and Irregular Infantry units) will deploy behind the German lines in Russia. If the Axis goes to war with the Soviet Union prior to turn 25 a small number of pro-German (Nationalist) partisans will deploy in the Ukraine.

4-10 turns after Finland is attacked pro-Axis Finnish partisans will deploy.

Pro-Allied partisans will deploy in Greece and Yugoslavia after they are conquered. Additional (communist) partisans will deploy some time after the Soviet Union enters the war.

Pro-Allied partisans will appear in Spain should Spain enter the war. 

If the Axis goes to war with the Soviet Union before the Allies have occupied hex 112, 62 - two hexes south of Kovno, on the Lithuanian-Polish border - the Baltic States will join the Axis and deploy small infantry forces.

When the Allies occupy the Baltic States (hex 112, 62 - as above) and/or Besserabia (hex 110, 87 - Chisinau) additional Soviet Border Troops will be deployed.

The Soviet-German War triggers a timed series of events that places additional equipment in the replacement pool, and deploys  reinforcement for both sides.

The entry of the United States triggers a series of timed events deploying US reinforcements.

4-13 turns after Yugoslavia surrender pro-Axis Croat forces will deploy

10-19 turns after Spain surrenders to the Allies a pro-Allied  Spanish Government will be formed in Madrid. This will deploy Allied controlled Spanish forces

16-24 Turns after the Allies conquer Romania pro-Soviet Romanians will deploy.

If the Axis penetrate to within 17 hexes of hex 143, 72 (Rayazan, to the south of Moscow) a Theatre Option appears for France/UK to declare war on Germany, if they are not already at war.

This is likely to be of some consequence if France has declared its Extend Maginot Line Option, and the Axis has responded by ignoring Western Europe and launching an 'Eastern Crusade' in alliance with  the Poles and the other Balkan States.  During playtesting we found that deliberately choosing these Options actually makes for a very good game. You might want to try it by mutual agreement.

Players familiar with the TOAW Editor can use the Scenario Dump toexamine the structure of the game in more detail.




Congratulations if you've managed to read this far.  It is a very lengthy summary for this type of game, but you will find this scenario far more rewarding and challenging if you fully understand  the implications of your moves and strategic options.  A number of wargamers have playtested this extensively for many months but it is not impossible, given the complexity of the event engine, that some bugs may still lurk in the shadows.  If you locate any, or if you have any comments on the game in general, do feel free to contact Ulver at ulver@ulver.dk.  Similarly, we've tried to research it properly as history: again, if you spot any 'howlers' do let us know.

Finally we must thank Trey Marshall, whose original design we've so massively reworked.  Trey has designed several other excellent and detailed scenarios for the TOAW series.

Ulver Nielsen
Mark Stevens

October 2000


Version 1.1 changes:
UK/France can automatically declare war on Germany when the US enters the war.
Allies may now attack Italy once the US is in the war.
Some 1-1 garrisons in the Caucasus to prevent easy landings and paradrops.
Delayed the arrival of Light Rifle replacement 10 turns and allow the allies to begin with the extra light rifle squads in the  replacement pool. Giving the allies a starting pool of 10000. This  will allow some reconstitution of units in a 1939 attack and since only the Soviets use light rifle squads it will make no difference  with a historical 1941 attack.

Increase the "Moscow Fortifications build" event radius from 6 to 10 hexes and let it trigger some AA units in addition to the forts and other reinforcements. Historically Moscow was the best-protected city in the world versus air attack. Added "Outer perimeter" of weak  fortresses units to better reflect the Soviet Strategy of the battle.

Choosing "Gift of destroyers" theater option will now improve allied supply by 4.
Fixed Bug in Soviet Surrender.
The surrender of the Soviet Union will now increase allied supply by  25
Reduced rail transport for both sides.
Some Dutch units will now resist an allied attack.
Reduced supply effects of axis capture of Crete

Version 1.2 changes:
Added paragraph to full briefing about Soviet entry into the war
Moved the supply penalty for loss of Leningrad to Stalingrad. (Since Leningrad brings in Sweden this evens things more out)
Added strong garrisons east of Moscow. This should enable the
Soviets to fight on even if Moscow is surrounded. Those garrisons
are completely immobile but they make a huge difference if the fighting moves east of Moscow.Added some bonus reinforcements to the Soviets for the fall of Moscow. Also added a single bonus unit for the fall of Leningrad and Stalingrad. Sort of a consolation prize.
Added Siberia off map box and moved allied supply point from Narvik  to Siberia. Again this is to make it possible for the Soviets to  fight East of Moscow.
Fixed bug that allowed Germans to use "resume offensive against France" option after fall of France.
Fixed bug that deployed Baltic forces even if Soviets occupied the Baltic States before war with Germany.
Fixed bug that prevented the Axis bonus units from winning thebattle of Britain from deploying. (They were scheduled to deploy in London - weird) Added a land route East of the Caspian Sea and made it possible to sail through the Suez channel.Reduced the movement points of non-motorized infantry corps. Added Soviet and minor country fleets.
 Added yet more pretty features to the map.

Version 1.21
Fixed Bug that prevented Poland from entering the war when Germany attacked France.
Fixed Bug that triggered Turkish entry into the war unintended,
Removed some Sherman Tanks from French North Africa Division
Improved French deployments a bit.

Version 1.4 +See Webpage


Oh yes, do mail me your comments at ulver@ulver.dk